acute cough differential diagnosis pediatrics

Allergy Asthma Proc. Coughing at the beginning of sleep and in the morning with waking usually indicates sinusitis; coughing in the middle of the night is more consistent with asthma. Ask about a history of choking (suspect foreign objects in airway). Many other children without red flag findings have a presumptive diagnosis after the history and physical examination. Describe its location and quality (crackles, crepitations, wheeze). HPI: The patient reports steadily worsening sore throat over the past 2 days, associated with a sensation of swelling. Lancet. 3. Prevalence, pathogenesis, and causes of chronic cough. They are helpful indicators to guide your differential diagnosis. Acute cough is one of the most common complaints prompting patient visits to healthcare professionals. The disease is often called acute subglottic laryngitis (ASL). The pharynx should be checked for postnasal drip. Weinberger M, Fischer A: Differential diagnosis of chronic cough in children. Is there increased work of breathing? It may be classified as acute (< 3 weeks), subacute (3–8 weeks), or chronic (> 8 weeks), as well as productive (with In young children with sudden cough and no fever or URI symptoms, the examiner should have a high index of suspicion for foreign body aspiration. URI-like prodrome, stridor, barky cough, high fever, respiratory distress, toxic appearance, purulent secretions, Rhinorrhea, tachypnea, wheezing, crackles, retractions, nasal flaring, possible posttussive emesis, In infants up to 24 months; most common among those 3–6 months, Sometimes nasal swab for rapid viral antigen assays or viral culture, URI-like prodrome, barky cough (worsening at night), stridor, nasal flaring, retractions, tachypnea, Sometimes anteroposterior and lateral neck x-rays, Exposure to tobacco smoke, perfume, or ambient pollutants, Abrupt onset, high fever, irritability, marked anxiety, stridor, respiratory distress, drooling, toxic appearance, If patient is stable and clinical suspicion is low, lateral neck x-ray, Otherwise, examination in operating room with direct laryngoscopy, Chest x-ray (inspiratory and expiratory views), Viral: URI prodrome, fever, wheezing, staccato-like or paroxysmal cough, possible muscle soreness or pleuritic chest pain, Possible increased work of breathing, diffuse crackles, rhonchi, or wheezing, Bacterial: Fever, ill appearance, chest pain, shortness of breath, possible stomach pain or vomiting, Signs of focal consolidation including localized crackles, rhonchi, decreased breath sounds, egophony, and dullness to percussion, Coughing at the beginning of sleep or in the morning with waking, Sometimes nasal discharge, congestion; pain on either side of the nose; pain in the forehead, upper jaw, teeth, or between the eyes; headache and sore throat, Rhinorrhea, red swollen nasal mucosa, possible fever and sore throat, shotty cervical adenopathy (many small nontender nodes), Tracheomalacia: Congenital stridor or barky cough, possible respiratory distress, TEF: History of polyhydramnios (if accompanied by esophageal atresia), cough or respiratory distress with feeding, recurrent pneumonia, Tracheomalacia: Airway fluoroscopy and/or bronchoscopy, TEF: Attempt passage of a catheter into the stomach (helps in diagnosis of TEF with esophageal atresia), Contrast swallowing study, including esophagography, Intermittent episodes of cough with exercise, allergens, weather changes, or URIs, Atypical pneumonia (mycoplasma, Chlamydia), Possible ear pain, rhinitis, and sore throat, Birth defects of the lungs (eg, congenital adenomatoid malformation), Several episodes of pneumonia in the same part of the lungs, History of meconium ileus, recurrent pneumonia or wheezing, failure to thrive, foul-smelling stools, clubbing or cyanosis of nail beds, Molecular diagnosis with direct mutation analysis, History of acute onset of cough and choking followed by a period of persistent cough, Presence of small objects or toys near child, Infants and toddlers: History of spitting up after feedings, irritability with feeding, stiffening and arching of the back (Sandifer syndrome), failure to thrive, recurrent wheezing or pneumonia (see Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants), Older children and adolescents: Chest pain or heartburn after meals and lying down, nighttime cough, wheezing, hoarseness, halitosis, water brash, nausea, abdominal pain, regurgitation (see Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease), Sometimes upper gastrointestinal study for determination of anatomy, Trial of H2 blockers or a proton pump inhibitor, Possible esophageal pH or impedance probe study, Trial of H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors, 1–2 weeks catarrhal phase of mild URI symptoms, progression to paroxysmal cough, difficulty eating, apneic episodes in infants, inspiratory whoop in older children, posttussive emesis, Intranasal specimen for bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction testing, Headache, itchy eyes, sore throat, pale nasal turbinates, cobblestoning of posterior oropharynx, history of allergies, nighttime cough, Trial of antihistamine and/or intranasal corticosteroids, Possible trial of a leukotriene inhibitor, History of respiratory infection followed by a persistent, staccato cough, History of repeated upper (otitis media, sinusitis) and lower (pneumonia) respiratory tract infections, Microscopic examination of living tissue (typically from sinus or airway mucosa) for cilia abnormalities, Persistent barky cough, possibly prominent during classes and absent during play and at night, Sometimes fever, chills, night sweats, lymphadenopathy, weight loss, Sputum culture (or morning gastric aspirate culture for children < 5 years), Interferon-gamma release assay (especially if there is a history of bacille Calmette-Guérin [BCG] vaccination). 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